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Tema: An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max

  1. #1
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    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max

    3ds Max includes an incredible array of tools for UV-mapping an object. Depending on your project and on your budget for extra plugins, mapping and texturing an object is a breeze.

    In this tutorial, I'll show you the basics of getting around the Unwrap UVW interface, a few methods for automatically mapping the object, and some techniques you can use when the automatic mapping doesn't quite do what you need it to.

    Hopefully, by the time we're done, you'll be familiar enough with the tools that you'll be able to find a quick and effective method for mapping any object.

    This tutorial was most recently updated for Max 7, and some new and powerful tools have been introduced since then. However, this tutorial focuses on the fundamentals, so it's a good primer even for newer versions of the tool.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-podship_checkers.jpg
    Si vas a subir un trabajo al foro, hazlo adjuntando la imagen, archivo, vídeo o lo que sea, no publicando enlaces de otros sitios. http://www.foro3d.com/f45/forma-correcta-de-insertar-imagenes-y-archivos-en-nuestro-mensaje-98930.html

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    Whats a UV map UV Mapping

    ]If you think of your 3d mesh as a sculpture, then you can think of your mesh's texture map as your sculpture's paint job. It fills in all the colors and details that geometry can't. The only problem is, while you can paint directly onto a sculpture in the real world, a texture map has to be a flat image. Perhaps a better analogy, then, would be if you had to paint on a sheet of paper, cut it up into little pieces, and paste them onto your statue.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut101_a.jpg An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut101_b.jpg

    That's the essence of what a texture map is - a flat drawing that's cut up, rotated, and fitted onto your mesh. A UVW map is the template that tells your 3D software exactly how to cut up the texture map and where to place it on your object.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut101_c.jpg

    If you've painted texture maps in the past, you probably know that bad UVW mapping coordinates can make the texturing process a major pain. I'll explain in this tutorial how to actually go about setting up UVW coordinates, but it helps to know ahead of time what can make a UVW map good or bad. There are a few main points to keep in mind, but if you stick to the analogy of gluing paper to a statue, you should do alright.

    First, you usually want to break your UVW map into as few pieces as possible. This makes drawing the texture map a lot easier, because you have fewer seams to line up, and it's easier to keep track of which part of the map goes onto which part of the object.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut102_a.jpg

    Second, you want to minimize stretching. Stretching is what happens when there's less texture detail on one polygon than on its neighbor. If you go back to the wallpaper analogy, stretching would mean the wallpaper just doesn't fit correctly on your statue - you would have to to crumple it up a bit to fit the shape correctly. Of course in your 3D program, it doesn't crumple, it acts a lot more like you had drawn your texture on a rubber balloon. If it doesn't fit perfectly, you have to stretch it to cover the whole form, and your paint job will look distorted.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut103_a.jpg

    Third, avoid overlapping mapping coordinates. You can't paint two different things on the same part of the texture map.

    The exception is when you have two parts of your object that will be getting the same texture anyway - this is especially common when you have a symmetric object, or an object with repeating details. In the space ship image on the right, the Wings are identical, so they make use of the same texture space.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut104_a.jpg An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut104_b.jpg

    Next, you want to make sure your mapping coordinates use the texture space as efficiently as possible. If you're restricted, say, to a 256x256 image for your texture, any large gaps between mapping coordinate clumps are just wasted space - if you could scale all your coordinates up a little bigger, and rearrange them to fill in the space(without overlapping, of course) all your details would have a little bit higher resolution.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut105_a.jpg An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut105_b.jpg

    Finally, it helps if your mapping coordinates map a consistent amount of texture space to your model's surface. If one three-meter section of your model uses 10% of your texture, EVERY three-meter section should use about 10% of the texture. It looks strange if one part of an object has a lot more texture detail than another, and it's much easier to match up seams if the texture resolution is consistent. There are exceptions to this, of course - when mapping a character, for instance, the head and face often get more detail than the rest of the body, since they're much more important.

    In practice, you have to balance these guidelines against each other to create an efficient UVW map. You also need to keep in mind that UVW mapping an object is an art form in its own right, though an incredibly dull one that you want to spend as little time on as possible. There's no "perfect" set of mapping coordinates for an object, and you can always do a better job. The trick is to decide what's good enough for your project, and get there as quickly as possible.
    Si vas a subir un trabajo al foro, hazlo adjuntando la imagen, archivo, vídeo o lo que sea, no publicando enlaces de otros sitios. http://www.foro3d.com/f45/forma-correcta-de-insertar-imagenes-y-archivos-en-nuestro-mensaje-98930.html

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    The Basics UV Mapping

    In this tutorial I'll be working with a space ship I modeled in Max 5. It's a fairly complicated object mapping-wise - it has lots of curved surfaces mixed in with a lot of chamfered edges and beveled segments, and they're all going to require a different method for mapping. For purposes of this tutorial I'm going to be very precise when mapping this object, though in real life I'd probably settle for sloppier UVW coordinates in order to save time.

    If you would like to follow along while working through this tutorial, you can download the object here. This is the final mapped versión of the object, though you can use it starting at the beginning of the tutorial without any problems. I have to warn you though, it's a complicated mesh, and you may be better off working with simple primitives or one of your own objects if you find yourself getting lost.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut201_a.jpg

    Before we begin, I'm going to go over a few basics, and mention a few shortcuts. First, three hotkeys you'll find immensely useful are F2, F3, and F4. F2, when pressed, toggles "Shade Selected Faces" mode - essentially, when this mode is on, selected faces will appear in bright red. F3 toggles wireframe/shaded mode, and F4 toggles "Edged Faces" mode. All are very useful throughout the modeling process, but especially when doing UVW-mapping.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut202_a.jpg An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut202_b.jpg An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut202_c.jpg

    Most of our UVW mapping will be done in the "Unwrap UVW" modifier. If you haven't done so already, select your object, and then add an "Unwrap UVW" modifier as shown on the right.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut203_a.jpg

    Last on our list of basics... Clicking on the "Unwrap UVW" modifier in the modifier stack will go to the "Select Face" sub-object level. This means you can click on your object in the viewport to select the faces you want to work on, and they'll be highlighted in the Edit UVW window. And... I hope you know this already, but you can ctrl-click to add more faces to the selection set, and alt-click to remove faces.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut204_a.jpg
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    The Unwrap UVW Interface UV Mapping

    With that out of the way, let's begin. Click on the "Edit" button to bring up the Edit UVWs window. What you see will probably be a garbled mess; that's fine, that's just the default mapping coordinates for the mesh.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut301_a.jpg An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut301_b.jpg

    Let's simplify things a little. If you didn't do so earlier, in the modifier stack, click on "Unwrap UVW" to go to "Select Face" mode. Drag a selection box around your entire object to select all the faces. Now, click on the "Planar Map" button in the Unwrap UVW rollout. This should make your uvw mapping coordinates look a lot simpler (but still not ideal for texturing.)

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut302_a.jpg An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut302_b.jpg An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut302_c.jpg

    Now, if you'll switch back to the Edit UVWs window, we'll briefly go over the major features of the interface. In the top-left corner of the dialog you have the basic modifier tools (move, rotate, scale, freeform, and mirror.) Once again a handy little tip, with the move and scale tools, holding [SHIFT] before clicking will allow you to constrain the transformation along only one axis - try it, I'm sure you'll see where that can come in useful.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut303_a.jpg

    In the bottom-right corner of the interface you'll find all the panning and zooming options,and below those are two buttons - "Rotate +90" and "Rotate -90". Very straightforward, but very useful.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut304_a.jpg

    To the left of those is the "Selection Modes" box. This contains some of the most significant improvements over previous versions of the Unwrap UVW tool. By default, vertex sub-object mode is selected - but to the right are buttons to change to edge and face sub-object mode, respectively. In Vertex mode, you modify mapping coordinates by moving around the corners of polygons in UVW space. In edge mode, you move the edges between two vertices. In face mode, you got it, you move faces around (which effectively moves the surrounding vertices.)

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut305_a.jpg

    Also note the + and - buttons, which allow you to expand and contract the current selection. Select Element is quite nice too, but we're not in a good position to demonstrate its uses yet. Don't worry, we'll get to it soon enough.

    Another great feature of the Unwrap UVW tool is that the selection in the Edit UVW window is the same as the selection in the 3d viewports, so you'll never have problems finding the right polygon. (this is one situation where turning on "Shade Selected Faces" mode, F2, is very useful.)

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut306_a.jpg An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut306_b.jpg
    Si vas a subir un trabajo al foro, hazlo adjuntando la imagen, archivo, vídeo o lo que sea, no publicando enlaces de otros sitios. http://www.foro3d.com/f45/forma-correcta-de-insertar-imagenes-y-archivos-en-nuestro-mensaje-98930.html

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    Automatic Mapping Features UV Mapping

    Now that you have a passing familiarity with the Unwrap UVW interface, let's do some mapping. Before we begin, I always like to apply a checkerboard texture to my objects, so that it's obvious when polygons are mapped well. Go into the material editor, select an unused material, expand the "Maps" rollout, and click on the button to the right of "Diffuse Color", labeled "None". In the window that pops up, double-click "Bitmap", and go find a suitable checkerboard texture (don't have one? Here, use mine!) Don't forget to click the "Show Map in Viewport" button, and apply the material to the object. Your object should look something like the image to the right.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut401_d.jpg An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut401_b.jpg An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut401_a.jpg

    Close the material editor and go back to your Edit UVWs window (you may have to click "Edit" again.) Note that the object's material now shows up as the background in the Edit UVWs box - isn't that handy? If you don't like it, you can always disable it by clicking the "Show Map" button at the top of the Edit UVWs window. Also note the dark blue box in the grid. That designates the boundaries of your texture map. If you mapping coordinates go outside of it, they'll wrap around to the other side - so be careful. (You really don't need to worry about that until the end.)

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut402_a.jpg

    Let's take a look at the first automatic UVW mapping method. Click on the "Mapping" menú, then "Flatten Mapping". Make sure the three checkboxes are checked, and hit "OK". You'll see your object broken up into chunks, almost like pieces of a puzzle. If you printed this out and cut out all the pieces, you could actually assemble them into a rough versión of your object - they're not perfect, but they're pretty close.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut403_a.jpg An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut403_c.jpg

    This is a good place to stop and demonstrate the "Select Element" feature. Check the box as shown, then click on any of the chunks in the Edit UVWs window. Notice it selects the entire element, not just the face (or edge or vertex) you clicked on. This is a great feature if you need to move whole chunks around.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut404_a.jpg An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut404_b.jpg

    But now that you've seen the default settings for Flatten Mapping, let's experiment a bit more. Go back to Mapping->Flatten Mapping, and play with the parameters a bit - specifically the "Face Angle Threshold" spinner. A bigger number will generally result in larger chunks, while a smaller number will produce smaller, but more numerous chunks (there will also be less stretching.) I used values of 75 and 25 for these examples. Depending on how you're going to texture the object, both results have their merits. As for me, I'm not quite happy yet, so let's play with some other mapping methods.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut405_a.jpg An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut405_b.jpg

    Go back to the "Mapping" menú, and click on "Normal Mapping." In the dropdown menú at the top, select "Box Mapping". All of the options are useful, but I use box mapping more often than the others. Hit OK to see the results. The object has been broken into six chunks, each mapped from a different direction. This has a major advantage over the box mapping option in the normal "UVW Map" modifier - the six views of the object aren't all placed on top of each other. But play with the options, try some of the other mapping methods (Left/Right Mapping, perhaps?) and see if you find something you like. If not, well, we're going to have to do something a little more complicated.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut406_a.jpg An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut406_b.jpg An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut406_c.jpg
    Si vas a subir un trabajo al foro, hazlo adjuntando la imagen, archivo, vídeo o lo que sea, no publicando enlaces de otros sitios. http://www.foro3d.com/f45/forma-correcta-de-insertar-imagenes-y-archivos-en-nuestro-mensaje-98930.html

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    Manual Mapping Techniques UV Mapping

    To begin, I'm going to re-apply "Flatten Mapping" with the settings as shown at the right. This is as good a starting point as any, since I only have to clean up the mapping coordinates I don't like. (Most of the larger chunks should be usable.)

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut501_a.jpg

    One of the first problem áreas on my object is the cockpit - it's curvature is too great for Flatten Mapping to place all of its polygons in the same UVW mapping clump. So what I'm going to do is select all the faces of the cockpit in the perspective viewport, then in the Unwrap UVW modifier rollout, click on "Planar Map".

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut502_a.jpg An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut502_b.jpg An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut502_c.jpg

    The result isn't quite ideal - the new mapping coordinates take up almost as much space as all the old ones combined, but it can be easily scaled back down to match the other polygons. I put the scaled coordinates off to the side for now - we'll rearrange everything later.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut503_a.jpgAn In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut503_b.jpg

    I found a couple situations where some faces could be joined easily without overlapping, even though planar mapping wouldn't work quite right. When you apply Flatten Mapping, these usually end up as chunks of one or two polygons just sitting on their own.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut507_a.jpgAn In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut507_b.jpg

    You can join these polygons together pretty easily by going into edge mode (make sure "Select Element" isn't checked), then select the common edge on one of the two elements you want to join. Note that the common edge on the other element turns purple.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut508_a.jpgAn In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut508_b.jpg

    Clicking on tools->Stitch Selected will connect the elements together (click "ok" on the stitch tool dialog - the default settings are fine.)

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut508_c.jpgAn In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut508_d.jpgAn In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut508_e.jpg

    I stitched together a few more elements, but there are a few overlapping polygons. A simple solution here is to just weld the vértices together to make one continuous piece. It'll cause a little stretching, but if it's on a small polygon, you'll never notice. To do a target weld, click on Tools->Target Weld, then click and drag a source vertex onto its destination. Much better!

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut509_a.jpgAn In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut509_b.jpgAn In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut509_c.jpg

    You can see I was able to connect together a nice run of polygons using the stitch tool and target welding.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut509_d.jpg
    Si vas a subir un trabajo al foro, hazlo adjuntando la imagen, archivo, vídeo o lo que sea, no publicando enlaces de otros sitios. http://www.foro3d.com/f45/forma-correcta-de-insertar-imagenes-y-archivos-en-nuestro-mensaje-98930.html

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  7. #7
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    Traditional Mapping Tools UV Mapping

    Most of the tools we've looked at so far work well for very low-polygon meshes, or meshes with relatively flat surfaces. In this section we'll look at using some of Max's traditional tools for mapping more complicated shapes. If you're going to be mapping a character, for instance, you'll find yourself using this technique more than any other.
    I've reached a point where I've got a lot of polygons surrounding the main body of the ship that planar mapping just isn't ideal for. A cylindrical map would be best.

    At this point I applied a "Mesh Select" modifier, and selected all of the faces that fell roughly in a cylindrical shape around the body of the ship. (Selecting the faces in the Unwrap UVW modifier, unfortunately, doesn't work.)

    Note that at this point instead of adding a mesh select modifier, you could also collapse the modifier stack and select faces at the polygon sub-object level.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut505_a.jpgAn In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut505_b.jpg

    When I finished selecting faces I added a "UVW Mapping" modifier. (Different from the Unwrap UVW modifier!) I changed the mapping to "Cylindrical" and hit "Fit". This fit the shape of the cylindrical mapping gizmo snugly around the faces I had selected. In practice, you will need to change the alignment of the gizmo if your polygons aren't lined up along the Z axis.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut505_c.jpgAn In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut505_d.jpgAn In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut505_e.jpg

    At this point we have two choices. If there are other sections of the mesh that need special mapping (cylindrical, spherical, etc), we could add another mesh select modifier, pick the faces we want, and add another UVW Mapping modifier on top of that. However, for our space ship mesh there are only a couple simple bits to clean up, so let's get back to our Unwrap UVW mode.
    Before we can add the Unwrap UVW modifier, we need to make sure we have the correct polygons selected. (Right now only the polygons we cylindrically mapped are selected.) So add another "Mesh Select" modifier and select all the faces, then add the Unwrap UVW modifier on top of that.
    Once again, the mapping coordinates aren't quite ideal, so I scaled and moved them so that they don't overlap. It would also be nice to break this large chunk up a bit. To do this, I selected the faces that I wanted to become a separate element, then clicked on Tools->Break (Ctrl-B). Now I can move those faces off to the side without also stretching the adjacent faces.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut506_a.jpgAn In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut506_b.jpgAn In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut506_c.jpg
    Si vas a subir un trabajo al foro, hazlo adjuntando la imagen, archivo, vídeo o lo que sea, no publicando enlaces de otros sitios. http://www.foro3d.com/f45/forma-correcta-de-insertar-imagenes-y-archivos-en-nuestro-mensaje-98930.html

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  8. #8
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    Finishing Touches UV Mapping

    Using the above methods, I've managed to clump most of my polygons together into nice UVW groupings, and get rid of most of the clusters of only one or two polygons. In real life you'd probably try to group the polygons together even more, but we've gone far enough for this tutorial. Now all that's left to do is fit all the mapping clusters back into normal texture space (denoted by the blue square.) Fortunately, Max provides a tool to do this too.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut510_a.jpgAn In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut510_b.jpg

    Click on Tools->Pack UVs, and fill in the options as shown. Hit OK! You should get a nice, even distribution of polygons. Of course, you can do it manually by rotating and scaling chunks. This will usually give you better results, but it's much more time consuming. You can also put matched segments on top of each other to conserve texture space.

    An In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut510_c.jpgAn In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut510_d.jpgAn In-Depth Look at UV Mapping an Object in 3DS Max-tut510_e.jpg

    And that's it for the mapping! I recommend using a utility like Texporter to export the mapping coordinates to an image, which you can use as a basis for your texture map.
    Now, as I mentioned at the start, if I was mapping this object "for real", I probably would have been a bit sloppier with my mapping. I would have planar mapped larger groups of polygons to avoid having to spend so much time stitching elements together, with the drawback that the object would have had more stretching. But at this point you've seen most of the new mapping tools, you've seen how to do a quick job of mapping your object, and you've seen how to do it all manually if you need to.
    Si vas a subir un trabajo al foro, hazlo adjuntando la imagen, archivo, vídeo o lo que sea, no publicando enlaces de otros sitios. http://www.foro3d.com/f45/forma-correcta-de-insertar-imagenes-y-archivos-en-nuestro-mensaje-98930.html

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